Accueil Tamazight ‘’Akken qqaren : Awal, i t-iferrun, d awal’’

Dr Lasheb Ramdane, d aselmad, d amnadi, d amaru

‘’Akken qqaren : Awal, i t-iferrun, d awal’’

192

Seg temẓi-s i inuda ɣef later n laṣel-is. Yesselmed Lasheb Ramdane tamaziɣt, yura  s tmaziɣt, iga anadi-ines n duktura ɣef usedwel i tgemmi. Yettnadi amek i d-yettili useḥbiber ɣef tgemmi ? Acu n ttawilat   iwulmen i waya ? Dɣa ɣef wanect-agi i d-yessuffeɣ adlis-is wis 6 iwumi yefka azwel ‘’Kra seg tedyanin n zik’’, ussan kan iɛeddan ɣer tezrigin  Achab. I lmend n tuffɣa n usenfar-a akked leqdic-is s umata, newwi-d awal yid-s deg tdiwennit-a.     

Aɣmis n yimaziɣen : Yeffeɣ-d ussan-agi kan udlis-ik wis setta s uzwel ‘’Kra seg tedyanin n zik’’. Ma tzemreḍ ad aɣ-d-teffkeḍ agzul fell-as ? 
Lasheb Ramdane : Adlis ‘’Kra seg tedyanin n zik’’, d awal n wat zik i aɣ-d-yewwḍen s wudem atlay ; rriɣ-t-id ɣer tira akken ur yettruḥ ara, akken ur t-tɣedder ara tatut imi wid uɣur mazal ccfawat-a, la ttruḥun yiwen, yiwen. Deg-s, tidyanin yeḍran, timucuha yerzan asbeddi n tudrin, tiqsiḍin yerzan kra n wudmawen n ddin akked d temɛayin n kra n yimdanen…S umata yerza tasekla timawit anda aḍris n tesrit d tmedyazt ddukklen. Kra seg-sen, ffɣen-d yakan di tadlist ‘’Zik-nni deg Wat Dwala’’, kra-nniḍen deg uɣmis ’’La Dépêche de kabylie’’. Nesddukkel-iten deg yiwen udlis  ‘’Kra n tedyanin n zik’’. Adlis-adeg-s 44 n yiḍrisen i nebḍa ɣef rebɛa n yimura.
Amur amezwaru, yewwi-d ɣef tayri, nnif, ttar d tirrugza am wullisen ‘’Tegzem-as amrar d sser, Ttar n tlemẓit, Tadyant n Si saɛid At ccix’’…Amur wis sin, netta, yerza timsirin n ddunit. D iḍrisen i d-yewwin ɣef lmeɛna n wawal am uḍris ‘’Lamin d uqcic, Yir ṛṛay’’…Amur wis tlata, yerza kra tudrin, yewwi-d ɣef tmucuha,  tid iwumi qqaren‘‘Les récits de fondation’’. Deg-sent, ttalsent-d imezwura amek i d-lulent kra n tudrin  am tin At Buɛli, Tamaɣuct, Taddert Ufella akked wamek rabent kra am tin  i ɣef i d-yettmeslay wullis ‘Taddart ixla waḍu’’.  Ma d amur aneggaru, deg-s timɛayin n kra n yimdanen. S umata, iḍrisen-a, wwin-d ɣef tmedyazt taqdimt n At Dwala, tin n yimedyazen icban Aɛmar Awmar am deg Lekra  userdun, Tislit, Muḥend saɛid At Waɛrab am deg Ay ul ibɣan iɣi, Buzelluf, Mḥat Mḥidin am deg deg Tameɣrust d wegḍi, Tasekkurt, Awmar Muḥed-Waɛmar akked Wakli-Iheḍdaden deg umjadel-nsen am deg uḍris Di lqehwa n Dda Ɛumar, Saɛid At Waɛrab akked Saɛid Awdiɛ am deg Azenzi n Lḥenni…

Amek i d-yella leqdic am wa deg unnar ?
Leqdic amezwaru deg uḥerrez (sauvegarde) n tgemmi timawit, d ajmeɛ seg yimi n yimɣaren d temɣarin uɣur mazal ccfawat n zik, ayen akk illan s tmenna. Yezmer ad d-yili s  dicṭafun neɣ kamira. Tura ishel maḍi , nezmer ad nseqdec allal n tilifun. Acu kan, yessefk ɣef umnadi ad yesseqdec tarrayt n udiwenni d uqader n leqwanen-is. Tarrayt, ad tili alehṣab n wayen ibɣa ad t-yexdem umnadi. Mehṣub, aleḥsab iswi unadi-ines. Nesseqdac tarrayin seqdacen deg tussna n umdan (anthropologie) neɣ tussna n tmetti (sociologie). Mi nefren wid iwumi ara neg adiwenni, nseɛlam-iten ɣef yiswi-nneɣ, syin nesseklas-iten. Imir, akk ayen yellan deg usekles ad yuɣal ɣer tira.
Ur nrennu, ur nsenqas. Leqdic-agi uḥerrez n tgemmi, aṭas aya segmi i tebḍiɣ.Deg temnaḍt n At Dwala mi lliɣ selmadeɣ tamaziɣt, jemɛeɣ-d aṭas seg wayen nnan d wayen gan yimezwura. Jemɛeɣ-d isefra n lgirra, tidyanin, timucuha yerzan asbeddi n kra tudrin, inzan, tamedyazt d timɛayin yerzan kra n yimdanen i d-yufraren imiren s wayen nnan neɣ s wayen gan. S wayagi i uriɣ idlisen am ‘’Lgirra n 195461962 deg tmedyazt n tilawin, Chants de guerre des femmes kabyles, Monographie d’un village kabyle :Tala-xlil’’ akked d wagi i-d-iffɣen ɣer tezrigt Achab ussan-a. Tidyanin i d-yeddan deg udlis-a, ur qqiment ara s talɣa n  timawit meḥsub akken i tent-id-sskelseɣ.
Segmeɣ-tent akken ad uɣalent ɣer tira. Ihi yella wayen yettwahettmen fell-i ad ibeddel i lmend n tira-nsent. Tamedyazti d-yeddan, teqqim akken i tt-id-wwin imiren. Isefra, ttwarun i lmend n tseddarin, ifyar d tmeɣrut mi ara tili. Niqal, bɣiɣ ad as-geɣ tazwart anda ara d-ssisneɣ iḍrisen-a, maca ufiɣ ayagi ulac acu ara d-yernu imi ayen bɣiɣ ad t-id-aruɣ yella di kra n yidlisen ɣef tsekla timawit. Unfeɣ-as ihi akken. Ha-t-an s umata amek i d-ilul udlis-a.

Kečč yettnadin deg uḥric-agi n tgemmi, amek yezmer ad yesseḥbiber usenfar-a ɣef tgemmi tamaziɣt s umata?
Uqbel ad d-fkeɣ tiririt ɣef useqsi-a, ma tebɣiḍ ad d-bduɣ, ad d-smektiɣ azal i tesɛa tsekla timawit di tmetti n zik. Adlis  ‘’Kra n tedyanin n zik’’ yewwi-d ɣef tsekla timawit, yiwen n uhṛic seg tgemmi tadelsant tamensayt n yiqbayliyen. Tasekla timawit, d aḥric seg tgemmi n tmetti yettwasenfalin s wawal, s tmenna. Deg-s, inzan (lemtul), tiqnuẓin, tiqsiḍin, timucuha, tiḥkayin, ccnawi, tamedyazt akked tutlayt swayes senfalayen akk annecta…S umata, tigemmi-a deg tedder tutlayt, tzeger-d  leqrun d tsutwin, wa ittaǧa-tt-id i wayeḍ  seg yimi  ɣer umeẓẓuɣ. Yal tasuta, tewwi-d amur-is, tefra irec d ukerfa akken ad teddu ɣer sdat. Ihi, di tmetti n zik, ulac aɣerbaz, ulac aselmad maca yal tasuta telmed ɣer tiyaḍ timussniwin swayes ara teddu di tmetti (la socialisation). D acu n twuri i tesɛa tsekla timawit ? Akken i t-id-mmalen kra n yinadiyen, tasekla timawit ɣer-s aṭas n twuriyin :

Tawuri tamezwarut  terza ccehwa ( plaisir) mi ara ismuzgut yiwen i tidyanin, timucuha, tamedyazt, timɛayin…Aya ittaǧa amdan ad yinig, ad ibuḥru leɛqel.

-Tawuri tis snat,  nettat terza ttrebga neɣ « asedwel » n warrac. Arrac lemden amek ara ddun akken ilaq di tmetti. Lemden ansayen, ccan d isuḍaf (les codes) ɣef i tetteddu tmetti. Mi ara smuzguten i yimeqqranen ttmeslayen neɣ ssawalen tidyanin, timucuha, lemtul… Lemden tameslayt d ccan-is (valeurs). S umata, lemden amek ara mmeslayen imi kullec yebna ɣef wawal. Yak ferrun timsal s wawal. Akken qqaren awal i t-iferrun d awal. Amedya, mi ara sellen i tmucuha, arrac lemden aḥeṣṣen (l’analyse), ssnernayen deg usugen-nsen (developpement de l’imaginaire)…

 –Tawuri tis kraḍet  terza awelleh n yimdanen imeqqranen. Deg tsekla timawit, llant kra n tedyanin i d-yettawin ɣef wayen yelhan d wayen n diri. Yis-sent, ttwellihen, smektayen-d  imeqqranen ad xedmen ayen yelhan, ad ddun ɣef lḥeqq d sswab. Amedya, timɛayin seg  ttlalen yinzan/lemtul smektayent-d ɣef wazal i yesɛa yinzi deg umeslay, ladɣa di tejmaɛṭ neɣ mi ara yali wawal gar si yixsimen. S useqdec n yinzan i d-srusun talwit mi ara izad wawal : senɣasen di reffu n bnadem, ttaren amdan ɣer leɛqel-is, ɣer sswab.

-Tawuri tis ukuẓet  terza arrac, ilmeẓyen ara ibeddlen neɣ ara ikecmen aḥric-nniḍen deg tudert-nsen (fonction initiatique). D tidyanin i d-yettawin ɣef wamek ttɛeddin si tallit ɣer tayeḍ di tudert  am uɛeddi seg tudert n uqcic ɣer tillumẓit neɣ seg tillumẓit ɣer urgaz.

-Tawuri tis semmuset  terza udem amazray. Tasekla timawit n uɣref, tesɛa assaɣ d umezruy imi tettawi-d  awal ɣef tegnit ikecmen deg umezruy.  Temmal-d timuɣliwin n uɣref  deg wakud d wadeg : Iḥulfan, tirga, asirem d ccan d lqima n uɣref. Ihi akka, i t-id nniɣ, idṛisen n udlis ‘’Kra seg tedyanin n zik’’ i d-yewwin ɣef tsekla timawit  deg zzman n yiɣil wala deg zzman n temharsa, d tarzeft n tmussniwin. Deg-s, timuɣliwin n wat zik… Deg-s i tettwaḥrez tmeslayt ladɣa deg tmedyazt i d-iddan deg-s. Ihi, tuɣalin ɣer tira n tedyanin n zik, d yiwen n ttawil swayes ara nḥerrez ɣef tgemmi tamensayt. Yezmer yiwen ad yaf iman-is, ad yesteɛfu wallaɣ-is, ad immerreḥ lxaṭer-is mi ara tent-iɣer akken ufan iman-nsen wid i tent-yessawalen d wid i asent-isellen d zzman deg ddrent.Yezmer daɣen yiwen ad iḍil mi ara ten-iɣer ɣef tmuɣliwin d wansayen n zik. Ad iẓer tugna n tmetti n lawan-nni. Akken yezmer yiwen ad yaf  kra n umawal n teqbaylit n zik. Ar taggara yezmer yiwen ad d-yagem tikta neɣ ad isseqdec tadyant i d-iddan deg udlis i usnulfu deg unnar n tsekla akken ad d-ibeggen amedya, laṣel, tamagit-is…

Anadi-k di duktura-k, yerza dɣa asedwel (ttrebga) i tgemmi. Awal-ik ɣef wannect-a…
Anadi i xedmeɣ, yerza asedwel i tigemmi tadelsant s umata. Deg unadi-a, ssekneɣ amek yezmer ad d-tili ttrebga i tgemmi tadelsant berra n uɣerbaz, s wudem n tirmit n les fouilles archéologiques. Iban-d belli wid ittikin s lebɣi-nsen (  benévoles) deg les fouilles archéologiques, lemden timussniwin. Weḥd-nsen (rapport à soi),  akked d wiyaḍ (rapport aux autres)  akked mi ara qarben tiɣawsiwin (rapport aux choses) am wallalen irkiyulujiyen(outils archéologiques) imlebɣiyen n terkiyulijit (bénévoless de l’archéologie) lemden:Tatiknikit (techniques) yerzan les fouilles archéologiques; Asenqed irkiyulijiyen (prospections archéologiques) amek d-ttafen imekwan deg yella later; Timussniwin yerzan tussna n umdan (amedya mi ara d-issekfel aẓekka); Amezruy; Timussniwin yerzan tadawsa d tmeslayt…Mi ara mlilen d wiyiḍ, lemden diɣen idles s umata. Ttembeddalen tiktiwin ɣef yidles.
Wa ad yissin ad  ifraq idles n wayeḍ, am deg uḥric n tgella neɣ n “ddin”. Wigi nessawal-asen ‘’Les apprentissages interculturelles’’. Iban-d daɣen deg unadi-a, abeddel di tmuɣli n yimdanen-a (les fouilleurs bénévoles)Mi ara imagger le sacré amedya.Mmi ara yettiki deg usekfel n uẓekka(fouille d’une sépulture), ttbeddilent tmuɣliwin-ines (les representations), ttuɣalent ttmalent ɣer wayen iwumi neqqar ‘’l’universalité’’. Amdan, isittaɛ lxerṭer-is, ifehhem, ittqadar tamuɣli n wayeḍ. Ittwali tigemmi n wayeḍ amzun ines. Ittizmir ad tt-icrek d wayeḍ. Xas tagi tesɛa bab-is maca ttalasen deg-s medden imi d ayla n umdan. Ttrebga i tgemmi tadelsant s wudem les fouilles archéologiques d win ittaǧgan amlebɣi (bénévole) ad yissin kra n tmussniwin ara t-iǧgǧen ad isekcem iman-is di ccɣel n uḥerrez n tgemmi seg wul (avec éthique) uma ad yessiweḍ ad tt-icrek d wiyiḍ deg talwit.

D acu n wuguren iɛeggben tigemmi ass-a di tmurt. Amek yezmer  ad as-d-yuɣal wazal?
Tigemmi n umaziɣ, tedder aṭas di maḥyaf acḥal n yiseggasen. Ama di lweqt n temeharsa tafransist, ama mi seg tewwi timunent Lezzayer.. Wid isedduyen leḥkem mḥan isem umaziɣ seg yidles azzayri. Nekkren amezruy, cudden-aɣ ɣer wiyiḍ armi sɛerqen i yimdanen laṣel-nsen…  Acu kan, ayen ur nbedd ara ɣef lsas iseḥḥan, leqrar-is ad d-yeɣli yiwwas. D ayen i yeḍran iseggasen-agi ineggura, xersum seg wasmi tekcem tmaziɣt ɣer uɣerbaz. Arraw n tmurt, bdan ttakin-d, tteɛqalen iman-nsen d Imaziɣen. Acu kan mazal ar tura tigemmi tadelsant n yimaziɣen tedder di maḥyaf. Amedya. Dduwla tesmenyaf gar talliyin n umezruy, tefka aṭas azal i tallit ibdan si lqern wis sebɛa, am wakken ddunit n yimaziɣen, tebda si lqern-agi.
D ayen ara yeǧǧen aṭas n yizzayriyen ad ɣillen nutni d Aɛraben. Tigemmi n yimaziɣen, ur ten terzi ara, am wakken mačči nsen. Ihi ma ur teɛqil ara ‘’Faḍma argaz-is’’ ula i txedmeḍ! Xas gan isuḍaf n useḥbiber i tigemmi tadelsant, xas yella-d ufran n kra seg tgemmi tadelsant sɣur Unesco meḥsub yuɣal d tigemmi n talsa,  ma ur tt-ɛqilen ara warraw-is d ayla-nsen, ma ur ɛqilen ara iman-sen deg-s, tuɣal ɣer din.  Uqbel ad tesečč, ad d-tesasi tgemmi aɣrum i warraw-is (volet économique), yessefk ad tt-ɛeqlen warraw-is d ayla-nsen. Akken ttwaliɣ, akken tigemmi ad tt-ḥerzen warraw-is, yewwi-d tamezwarut n tmezwura, ad d-tili ttrebga, asedwel i lmend n tgemmi la mačči kan s wudem n uɣerbaz (formel), maca ad sittɛen asedwel ɣer berra n uɣerbaz, s ttawilat n tirmit n unnar am tin i d-bedreɣ, amedya deg unadi-inu.

Awal aneggaru
Tanemmirt i uɣmis n imaziɣen. Afud igerrzen.

Yesteqsa-t Hocine Moula