Accueil Tamazight ‘’Armud-agi i ggareɣ, nwiɣ-t d tiririt i ‘Tabṛat i Muḥend Azwaw’…’’

Dahmane Mazed: D amnadi deg taɣult n tfizikt taɣisant deg SCK-CEN n Biljik

‘’Armud-agi i ggareɣ, nwiɣ-t d tiririt i ‘Tabṛat i Muḥend Azwaw’…’’

85

Deg tdiwennit-a, newwi-d awal akked umnadi Dahmane Mazed ɣef udlis-is ara d-yeffɣen deg ussan-agi, ɣef yimuhal-is deg taɣult-agi n tfizikt taɣisant akked yisenfaren i d-yettheggi sya d afella.

Aɣmis n yimaziɣen: Ad tesuffɣeḍ adlis ɣef umawal n tfizikt ass 10/10/2202.Ma tzemreḍ ad aɣ-d-temmeslayeḍ  fell-as?
Dahmane Mazed: D tidet, gar-aɣ d kra n wussan kan, a-t-an ad d-iffeɣ (ɣer tiẓrigin « Editions Universitaires Européeenes » di Pari) udlis i yuriɣ ɣef useqdec n umawal n tfizikt tatrart n teqbaylit deg tirawin, tizrawin, iḍrisen, inawen d yidlisen atg… yettwarun s tutlayt taqbaylit (neɣ tmaziɣt, s umata).
Adlis-agi (s uzwel : “Vocabulaire de Physique moderne en langue kabyle”) mačči d amawal s timmad-is, maca srusuɣ-d deg-s ilugan, tisetwal (techniques) d terrayin (méthodes) n wamek i nezmer ad d-nessenfel neɣ ad d-nessekcem awalen imaynuten ɣer tutlayt taqbaylit i wakken ad nessali inaw ussnan (discours savant) n tfizikt tatrat. Seddeɣ-d deg-s ayendin n tfelwin ideg i d-fkiɣ akk ayen is yesseɣs wa i wakken ad yessali tazrawt, aḍris n temsirt neɣ amagrad ussnan di tfizikt.  Deg wayendin n yirbiben (appendices), fkiɣ-d izli n yimedyaten n useqdec n tutlayt taqbaylit di tfizikt tusnakt (physique mathématique), tamikanikt, tasnagurt (astronomie), tamikanikt takwanṭit (mécanique quantique), takimit (chimie), tagurfizikt (astrophysique), d ifurken-nniḍen n tfizikt.

D acu n yiswi neɣ iswiyen n leqdic am wa?
 Acimi i d-uriɣ adlis-agi di tazwara, send ad as-d-alseɣ i tikkelt tis snat i “Amawal n Tfizikt tatrart”-nni i d-iffɣen yakan deg 2003 (maca s wazal n 2 000 n tisura (copies) kan), am wakken ddeqs i yi-t-id-issutren ? Ad feṛseɣ dɣa tagnit-a,  ad d-sselɣuɣ imeɣriyen d akken a-t-an ssewjadeɣ-d taẓrigt tis snat n umawal n tfizikt, maca s talɣa yettuseɣtan-yennernan (édition corrigée et augmentée) ad d-iḍefren gar-aɣ d waggur neɣ sin.Iniɣ-d deg umenza (principe), yal amawal n tutlayt igemm simmal yettnerni ufares n tirawin (production scripturale) di tutlayt-nni.  Aya, meḥsub di tilawt alamma ggten yidlisen, tizrawin, imagraden d yidlisen n tfizikt di tazwara, d wamek yezmer wa ad d-yelqeḍ seg-sen akk awalen-nni imaynuten yeddan, yuɣen di tutlayt akken iwata, is yezmer wa ad yessali imir-n izegzawalen ussnanen (dictionnaires scientifiques).
D tagi i taɣda tufrint n umahil, mačči nemgal-is, seg uqelmun s iḍarren!  Ihi iswi amenzay n udlis agi, d timli iwatan amek i nezmer ad nebdu amahil usali n tesbeddit n tussniwin tuffrinin (sciences exactes) s teqbaylit seg lsas (fondation) ar weslef (toit).  Iswi wis ssin, d igejdi ula d netta: Deg udlis-a, εerḍeɣ ad d-sekneɣ d akken lemmer yelli kan cwiṭ n lebɣi, s drus n tmussni n teqbaylit, nezmer ad naru s tutlayt-nneɣ, yal wa di taɣult n tussna ideg iqeddec, iḍrisen d yidlisen n tussniwin tufrinin d tiknulujit tunnigt (HiTec) d tisetwal yuẓan di tmussni (Techniques avancées). S wakka ara nennerni s unegmu n tutlayt-nneɣ tyemmat seg i d-nefruri. Acku, di tilawt, akken yenna Jean Lmouhouv Amrouche (1906-1962): « …Acku di tilawt, d tutlayt i yaɣ-d-yeggaren, yecceḍ win yenwan d nekni i d-yesnulfuyen tutlayt-nneɣ, am wakken ttennin aṭas n yimasnilsan irufrinen » (…Car c’est bien la langue qui nous fait, et on a tort de croire que c’est nous qui faisons notre langue, tel que le considèrent à tort beaucoup de linguistes peu rigoureux.).
, iswiyen usnawiyen (secondaires) ayendin i d-giɣ deg-s. Gar-asen, zemreɣ ad d-bedreɣ xeṛsum yiwen. Gar tarrayin n usekcem, neɣ n usnulfu n wawalen imaynuten, nessen yakan d akken nezmer ad nuqem taleslalit (renaissance) n wawalen yenqedwan, neɣ bitt, inegren ass-a di tutalyt taqbaylit. Skanayeɣ-d deg udlis-agi amek nezmer diɣ ad nesseqdec awalen n yal ass, yeddan di teqbaylit tafessast n yimir-a, maca ad asen-neg anamek-nniḍen deg usentel.  Yili d amedya kan : “Igi n tikennewt takwanṭit” (Effet de l’intrication quantique).
Nesseqdec dagi awal n “tikennewt” i d-nessuddem seg tleqqaft [KN] (takna, akniwen, tikniwin). Xas ulamma awalen-agi ddan s yinumak is i ten-nessawal ass-a, anamek amaynut i d as-nga dagi i “Tikennewt takwanṭit” yekres ayendin, imi yessutur-d tamussni talqayant n tfizikt n walmud asdawan unnig (enseignement universitaire supérieur).    Γef waya, yeqqar umasfizik aẓrayan amarikani, Richard Feynmann (1918-1988): « Amasfizik iẓewren d win ilan ad yessenfa awalen iḥerfiyen, n umeslay n yal ass, ad asen-d-yesnulfu anamek ukris deg usentel i d-yebder » (Un bon physicien devrait être capable d’utiliser des mots simples du langage courant en leur créant un sens compliqué dans le contexte invoqué).

 Ɣef wakken tettwaliḍ kečč, melmi i tezmer teqbaylit ad tili d tutlayt n uselmed?
 Assa, simmal yettnerni wuṭṭun n wid yessenfayen (yesseqdacen) taqbaylit di tira, asnulfu d usnunnet (création et innovation). Ayagi ur ilaq ara ad ten-neḥqer (négliger) neɣ bitt ad t-nessedreg. Ala, ur ilaq ara ! Rniɣ iniɣ-d d akken, ass-a, ayen i ttarun yimagzayen (intellectuels), mačči am zik-nni. Simmal yettifrir ufares ussnan yettwarun (production savante), s wudem n tmuɣli n tɣara (qualité), ur neqqim ara kan di tmucuha d tqulhatin-nni zik.  Ticki ssikkideɣ ayen i d-iteffɣen, i d-yettrusun deg yismilen uẓeṭṭa n Internet, neɣ d idlisen, s talɣa taferkawt (en forme papier), qqareɣ iḍrisen yettwarun s teqbaylit simmal tettizdig, tettnerni di cbaḥa d sser, gezment tefyirin-ines, mesden wawalen-is akken iwata.
Ilaq ad as-neg leqrar ugar sya ar sdat i tutlayt i “yaɣ-d-iggaren”, i ak-yeqqar Jean Lmouhouv Amrouche, acku seg-s i d-nefruri…Nekk, ass-a, riɣ ad d-iniɣ i win iwumi d-tella deg wul-is tɣuri n tussniwin d tmussniwin (Sciences et Savoirs) s teqbaylit, yesserkes wa ma yenna-ak ur ufiɣ ara ayen yuklalen taɣuri s teqbayllit, xas ulamma d tidet, mačči ayen yakk inuda yufa-t. Maca, seg ucrured ar tikli, am wakken qqaren..
Γef waya ihi, i tikkelt tis snat, ad feṛseɣ tagnit-agi i yi-d-tefkiḍ ma tessurfeḍ-iyi,  i wakken ad d-greɣ tiɣri-inu i yimeddukal-iw isdawanen (universitaires), imasnagzayen iqbayliyen i wakken ur ttkukrun ara ad arun s teqbaylit tamussni-nsen, d wayen i d-snulfuyen, d wayen yakk i ggaren d imuhal imaynuten (ouvrages originaux). Acimi ? Acku, d ayen ibanen, s wakka ad d-teqqim tmussni taqbaylit deg umezruy d iseɣ n ttbut d wanza ara d-bedrent tsuta tiqbayliyin, d timaziɣin s umata, i wakken ad d-mlent azal yufraren i tuklal tutlayt-nsen tayemmatt di tɣerma n talsa, deg tilla ar yimal.
Aya, issefk ad yili d aɣan ur nettusuraf (un devoir imprescriptible) ara yarzen iri n yal amassan, yal amussnaw, yal amagzay aqbayli. Ihi awi yufan ad d-ttrusun, s usnagar ugar, yimuhal imagzayen (ouvrages intellectuels) i tezrewt d tesleḍt  yerzan isental yennernan di tekres (complication), yuẓan ayendin di tsemlelt (complexité), icban tafelseft (tasnagayt), tafizikt taẓrayant yuẓan (Advanced theoretical physics), tiẓriyin tisrifayin (élégantes) n tusnakt, neɣ isuraf imiranen n tsetwal tunnigin (procédès actuels de techniques de pointe, HiTec) atg… 

 Ma tzemreḍ ad aɣ-temmeslayeḍ ɣef yisenfaren-ik n sya d afella?
Ddeqs ayagi seg i ttaruɣ tafizikt s teqbaylit. Acku am akken friɣ belli tewweḍ-d tura tallit-is, temmed, tezzi-d nnuba-s, ad d-iḍill yitri-s tura, ad d-yenqer useḍru-s (son rayonnement) d tafat i yuɣen deg umduc agrakal, ad teqqel d taɣerma yufraren deg yiseɣ n talsa s timmad-is. Friɣ am wakken di tsuta-agi ideg nella, tis XXI°, anegmu n teqbaylit a-t-an seg useggas ar aseggas simmal ad yettnerni, ad d-yeglu s unefli n tarwa-s, imi ad as-alseɣ, d taqbaylit i d-iggaren tarwa-s mačči nemgal. Inzi-s d inzi n tara n tẓurin i d-yeggaren iguza d yijgugal n waḍil, ur mačči d aḍil i yessegman tara-s ! Awalen-agi i d-bedreɣ, nniɣ-ten d tazwart i tririt-iw. Imi i yi-d-testeqsaḍ, ayendin isenfaren i cettleɣ di tenfilt n tidmiwin-iw.
Wigi-nni rzan, am wakken tettwalim, d tisuqqlin ɣer tutlayt taqbaylit i d-giɣ d iɣiwsan imenza (objectifs primordiaux). Wigi-nni d idlisen n tussniwin yerzan tafizikt, wid uran imasfiziken imeqranen icban Copernic, Gallilée, Kepler, Newton, Maxwell, Einstein, Hawking, atg. Idlisen-agi d tigejda, d isulas n tfizikt. D wid yeddan s tizri n wakud, uɣalen tura d imahilen imazrayen (ouvrages historiques) yellan d tasbeddit (fondation) n tfizikt. Ihi, sya ar da, imir ad yi-d-yili cwit n wakud usgunfu, ttarreɣ-tt i tira, ssawaḍeɣ (ttkemmileɣ)-ten. Ayagi si tama, seg tama-nniḍen, a-t-an nettmeslay nekk d kra n yimeddukal-iw imasfiziken iqbayliyen, iqedcen deg unnar unadi yuẓan di tfizikt, ɣef yisuraf d warmud i ilaqen ad ten-nger i wakken ad asent-nesnerni ccan i tussna d tmussni tiqbayliyin, ad as-yettwaɛqal i teqbaylit wayla-s, iseɣ i tuklal, s lmendad n wussisen imasnagzayen (efforts intellectuels) n tarwa-s, d wid akk i d-yufraren deg umaḍal irkelli.  Γef waya, ad d-bedreɣ d imedyaten, gar-asen amesfizik aɣisan ameqran yettwassnen deg umaḍal s timmad-is, Prof. Hamid Ait Abderrahim (n Tiheṛt, maca taddart-is n At Buabdeṛṛaḥman n At Wasif).
D anemhal n wammas ameqran ugar n tmurt n Biljik, SCK-CEN (ideg xeddmeɣ tura), i yerza unadi ɣef tezmert d wassnasen-is iɣisanen yuẓan.  Ḥamid At Abdeṛṛaḥim, d anemhal n usenfaṛ MYRRHA ideg nqeddec akken. D asenfaṛ amezwaru di ddunit meṛṛa, ara yessmlilen i tikelt tamenzut, urǧin i da tt-iga umdan, asrurad n ipṛutunen (Accélérateur de protons) i wakken ad iseddu yis-s anamyag aɣisan (Réacteur Nucléaire) issenfayen (isseqdacen) inutṛunen iruraden (neutrons rapides) i wakken ad « yesserɣ » deg-s ayen i wumi neqqar « tuṛsaḍ tiɣisanin » (déchets nucléaires). S wakka a-t-an a nessiweḍ ad nefru ugur-agi n turṣaḍ tiɣisanin, i iɛeggben anegmu n usexdem n tezmert taɣisant deg yinagrawen uzmiren isarawen n tezmert taliktrit (Systèmes énérgétiques générateurs d’électricité). Ayagi mačči d menwala ad t-issalin.
Ihi ilaq ayen yakk uɣur ssawḍen tarwa n teqbaylit, ad as-d-yeqqim d ccan-is i talsa, ad as-yettwaɛqel. Yella diɣen umasnagurfizik Prof. Rachid Ouyed, n At Abdelmumen n Iwaḍiyen.  Prof. Rachid Ouyed, seg gar yimazzagen imeqranen yufraren di tussna n tagurfizikt, yettwassen s turda i d-iger ɣef tilin n « Nova n ikaṛken » (Quark Nova), anerdem n yitran n yinutṛunen ɣer taggara n tudert-nsen. D aselmad amnadi di tesdawit n Calgary di Alberta, tamurt n Kanada. Mass Prof. Madjid Boutemeur, d amasfizik n tizleɣwa deg wammas awrupi unadi aɣisan CERN, si tama-s diɣen, ha-t-an iger-d isenfaren icban wigi i d-bedreɣ s ufella-a, i lmend n usnerni n wazal d ccan n teqbaylit, s wudem-is d tutlayt n tussna d tmussni, mačči kan d tutlayt n « Cna d cḍeḥ », akken yeqqar Lwennas MATOUB, ilan tajmilt tameqqrant, yesgunfu di talwit.  Di taggara, iniɣ belli nekk xeddmeɣ annect-a, acku umneɣ belli ass-a, tedda takti n Dda Lmulud At Mɛemmeṛ. Armud-agi i ggareɣ, nwiɣ-t d tiririt i « Tabṛat i Muḥend Azwaw”. Riɣ-d s wakka ad d-rreɣ i tiɣri-s, anida yesḥassef ayendin acimi imasnagzayen, isdawanen d imussnawen imaziɣen imezwura, icban Apulée, Saint Augustin, Tertullien, Franton, Ibn Khaldun, … ur ten-yewwi ara lḥir i wakken ad arun, ad sneflin tutlayt nsen, yeddan di tilla nni yezrin ? Nemgal n waya, dhan-d d iqeddacen n tutlayin tijenṭaḍ, tid yesnernayen, yessegman igduden d iɣerfan-nniḍen, deg umur n tarwa-nsen.
Ass-a, ilaq ad tbeddel tegnit fell-aneɣ, bezzef tura i « nesserwet, εebban wiyaḍ »! Tura, iniɣ : Basta !


Awal-ik n taggara…  
Acu ara d-rnuɣ, s nnig n wayen yakk i d-nniɣ s uffella-a ? Ttxilwat a wid i yi-yeqqaren, ad yi-tessurfem imi ssugteɣ awal. Ḍemɛeɣ ur uẓayeɣ ara fell-awen s nnig tilas. Bɣiɣ ad ken-cekkreɣ kunwi s ineɣmasen yettarun s teqbaylit d tmaziɣt s umata. Ad d-cekkreɣ, ad ssiwḍeɣ tajmilt i yimezwura-nneɣ, d wid akk i yi-yerran ad as-geɣ i teqbaylit tasga deg wul-iw, s yisem-is i as-giɣ isem  i wayen akk ttwalint wallen-iw. Tanemmirt i kečč a Ḥusin, ad snemmreɣ diɣ Aɣmis n Imaziɣen i yi-d-ifkan tagni- agi, i wakken ad d-awiɣ awal ɣef wayen i yi-yerzan d wayen i yi-yurzen: anegmu n tutlayt taqbaylit, ad temmed d tutlayt n tussna d tmussni. Tanemmirt s tussda.

Yesteqsa-t Hocine Moula