Accueil Tamazight I tikkelt tamezwarut ara d-yili usenfar am wa deg umaḍal s...

Anamyag aɣisan n unadi MYRRHA n Biljik

I tikkelt tamezwarut ara d-yili usenfar am wa deg umaḍal s lmendad n Uqbayli

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Asenfar MYRRHA yettusemman almend n Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications (Anamyag unadi agtawuran aregna i lmend n yisnansen d tiknulujin tunnigin), d asenfar n yiwet n tewsit unamyag aɣisan n unadi, ilan iswi agejdan ad d-yesseflali tazmerlit usali n unamyag aɣisan iteddun s umesrurad n yipṛutunen (Accelerator Driven System = ADS s teglizzit).

S wakka, MYRRHA d anamyag aɣisan arurad (meḥsub yettaɣen s yinutṛunen iruraden), ittusisemḍen s uldun yefsin. Ila snat n tirnudmawin tizmerliyin: ama s tarnudemt tuzzimt neɣ tarnudemt tadwuzzimt. Asenfar-agi, yettusfrak s lmendad n SCK•CEN. Ssalayen-t ijenyuṛen d yimnadiyen iqeddcen deg wammas abiljiki n yinadiyen iɣisanen n SCK•CEN.

Gar yisnasen igejdanen i yerza usenfar-agi, ad d-yebder aserɣi n ukerfa d tursaḍ tiɣisanin, isekyaden n teẓdirt i tseḍrut taɣisant n warrumen yuẓan, akked ufaris n yiknidag iseḍrarmuden i nessenfa deg unnar n tujjya taɣisant.

Anmazray n MYRRHA

MYRRHA yennerna ccan-is, ila tamuli tagraɣlant, yettwafren-d yakan di duǧembeṛ 2010, s lmendad n Tasmilt tawṛufit (CE) seg gar 50 n yisenfaren i iwulmen tasgewt (réalisation) i wakken ad teqqim tuṛuft deg umḍiq umalway (leader) deg unnar unadi deg tiknulujit tunnigt gar-aɣ d snat n tmerwin (20) n yiseggasen i d-iteddun.  Asenfar MYRRHA, yessenfa tarmit i d-yerra seg tneɣruft GUINEVERE i yettwamden s twaffɣa deg useggas n 2012 deg uskar n ternudemt tadwuzzimt (en mode de configuration sous-critique).  

Tinimanin n MYRRHA

 Amesrurad

Agzan unagraw ADS, anagraw yeddan s umesrurad, yerza asegrew n unamyag aɣisan, yellan di ternudemt tadwuzzimt  d umesrurad n yipṛutunen. Inutṛunen-nni, izegglen (ixuṣṣen) i wakken ad taɣ tamyigawt tamazrart, tettakk-iten-id temyigawt usermimez i d-yettilin gar yipṛutunen afluzmiren d yiferdisen imaẓayen (wid ilan Z meqren ayendin, icban aldun (Pb), amafsay aldun-abismut (LBE), neɣ atungistan (W). Deg uldun (Pb), yal apṛutun n 600 MeV, izmer ad d-ifares azal n 12-14 n yinutṛunen). Asenfar MYRRHA, yettarad ameskar n usgat n 0,95 d ungi n yipṛutunen n 600 MeV (aḍru iliketri) s wazal n 4 mA, ad d-ifares umesrurad imzireg n yipṛutunen (LINAC). I teskeft n useqdec umesrurad am-a, yuẓan annect-a di teskilin-ines ( aḍru ameqran d trekda timixfiwt). MYRRHA, yettara-d diɣen ad yeg tasga i tarmit n tfizikt tadasilant [email protected] a yesqedcen abruy n tadla n ipṛutunen umesrurad LINAC.

Isegran userɣu    

Aserɣu i yettwaraden i useqdec d aserɣu i wumi qqaren MOX amseɣbur ar 30% s uksiden n upluṭunyum (PuO2). Tuttla n yifegggagen userɣu a d-tili s yinfeḍ SS (15-15 Ti), acku infeḍ-agi n utiṭan (Ti), itaṭṭaf addud i teṣded, meḥsub ur yettṣeddid ara hakan akka, yerna addud-is yettwassen akken iwata.

Iɣes unamyag adwuzzim

Ayen i s yufrar MYRRHA, d talwiweḍt-ines imi ila snat n tirnudmin n yiɣes tizmerliyin: tuzzimt neɣ tadwuzzimt. Nezmer ad nessembiddel kraḍ n yiferdisen n userɣu ilemmassen s yixf umesurad n yipṛutunen akked tilam i nra ad nesseḍru s yinutṛunen iruraden. S wakka, MYRRHA, yezmer ad yeddu am unagraw ADS ilan ihi ad yesselkem isnasen icban tigzi n truẓi n yiktinyumen (Actinides) deg yiserɣa yensan, afaris n yeknidag ujjyanen, neɣ asekyed n teẓdirt i tseḍrut taɣisant n warrumen yuẓan.

Aseɣref amikaniki

MYRRHA d asenfar n umyag n n tawsit n temda yettwasisemḍen s urkis amafsayn aldun-abismut ɣer tuddda tagnawant. S wakka iɣes unamyag ad yeli yeqqur yernu d amaẓay. Rnu diɣ taṣdedt tettnerni xas ulamma tiẓɣal useqdec ur ulint ara ayendin.

Taneḍḍaft n taṣdedt

Llant kraḍ n tewsatin n teṣdedt deg urkis aldun-abismut amafsay (LBE: Lead-Bismuth eutectique), d wigikana :

  • Anefsay n yiẓban (Uzzal (Fe), Asmandu (Ni), Akṛumyum (Cr),…) n warrumen n temṣukt unamyag deg umafsay n waldun-abismut (LBE), am wakken ifessi wureɣ (Au) deg uzwaq (Hg) i wakken ad d-nessileɣ amalǧam garasen ;
  • Askukeḍ n yiẓban n temṣukt unamyag seg gar umafsay ablu i ikeccmen gar yisemlilen n yiwzan iẓbanen (Liquid Metal Embrittlement, LME, s teglizzit);
  • Aciqeṛ amikaniki n warrumen n temṣukt unamyag seg gar warag n ublu n uldun-abismut aneggaḍ (Taneẓẓi-is tegda azi n ~ 11.0) isikkilen s temɣawla ur ugensu n yiɣes unamwag.

Isedlagen userɣu MOX, ad ttuzegẓen ɣer tirnamriwin amtid, am nutenni am yiẓban i s gan warrumen n temṣukt unamyag. I tneṭṭaft n yikalen n teṣdedt takimit n yiẓban, issefk ad nessenqed akken iwata tudda tabruyant n wuksijin (neɣ iyunen uksiden, O2-) ileymen (meḥsub, yefsin) deg umafsay Pb/Bi s wazal kan ilaqen i wakken ad teg tissi n uksid a yessittwaɣen s ufella n tasniwin tiẓbanin i lmend n umestan-nsent. Anqad n tkimit i d-yettilin gar yiẓbi d uksiden n umafsay PB/Bi d zḍin, s wudem n tmuɣli n tneṭṭaft n yikalan n teṣdedt.

Akman n tseḍrarmudt

Bi-209 yellan deg umafsay PB/Bi yettnermad hakan akka s ddaw warag anutṛuni yulin i wakken ad d-yefk Bi-210, wagi s nnuba-s ad d-yefk Po-210 s tenrusi biṭa. Apulunyum-210 d amesgal alfa sari ilan tawala n uzgen n tudert T1/2 = 138,38 ussan. D aṛadyunuklid aseblaw ugar yettwassnen yerna yettili d anufag ɣer teẓɣelt yulin. S wakka, tlaq temḥadra meqqren i wakken ur d-yettnebra ara ad d-iffeɣ ɣer tegnewt d  twennaḍt d umastan n yimahalen. Timehlin irkelli yerzan tasegbelt d usemsawi n yisegran d inagrawen unamyag MYRRHA d uqerru n umasrurad n yipṛutunen, yuẓan ayendin ɣer tibleɣt-nni n usermimez, yewwi-d akken ad mmsegwent di tfedwint n ukman uzmim s useqdec n yiɣallen iggusislafen d iṛubuten. Ma d ayen yerzan tawakksa usmenteḍ aseḍrarmud n yisegran d tifilin yettusmentaḍen (qqlen d iseḍrarmuden) i wakken ad ttusemsawin d ussesfer n ilefḍan ibluten d igazen neɣ turṣaḍ d wafrasen iseḍrarmuden imadɣaren, timehlin-agi d icqiṛṛa itiknulujiyen imaklalen i mazal rǧan tifrat.

Tirni useɣbel

Deg useggas n 2014, MYRRHA yekker-as i tirni useɣbel yuẓan, yeẓẓunẓu snat n tirmitin i wakken ad d-yesseflali addud Ilumikaniki igerrzen n unamyag d teẓdirt-is mgal n yirgagayen n wakal.

Asnas deg Tekkenfelt

Deg yebrir 2015, Asudu n tfizikt taɣisant n Orsay (IPNO) iger asenfar MYRTE « MYrrha Research and Transmutation Endeavour » ilan d iswi asiweḍ, s teɣzi n ukuz n yiseggasen-nniḍen, inadiyen d tagmiwin ɣef tkkenfelt n tursaḍ tiɣisanin warmud afellayan. D ikalan-agi tabriḍt iɣef gan ayendin n tezrawin deg Fṛansa seg unekcum useggas-nni n 1991 deg ukatar usaḍuf yerzan tagmiwin i lmend usefrek n tursaḍ tiɣisanin. Tagmi yerzan takkenfelt n waktnyumen imeẓyanen d ifarisen n tfeṛzi taɣisant deg yiserɣa yensan d tagmi tagtugrint yessuturen ayendin n wakud, d timrawin iseggasen unadi, iḍul waggaḍ-is ɣer yeswi i d-yerza: tifin n tifrat i wuguren d yecqiṛṛa itwilanen iggaren ilɣiten ikersen.

Ilaq tagmiwin ɣef tkkenfelt, ad ddunt tamanta nutenti d usmezzi akimi yuẓan n yiṛadyunukliden iwulmen asekkenfel – Imi i wakken ad yers urmud-nsen, ilaq ad tennerni ayendin tawala n uzgen n tudert (T1/2) nsen, s wugar n yimelyunen n yiseggasen – s tagmiwin yesseqdacen tibliɣin tilaɣanin izemren ad ṭṭfent addud i tẓeɣlin yulin. Gar-aɣ d ilemḍanen n tmerwin n yiseggasen, ar taggara n tmiḍi yagi tis XXI, ma ddan isuraf di liser, yezmer wa imir-n ad isadem tamada n yinumyag iɣisanen n tsuta tis ukuẓ (IV GEN), yessenfayen inutṛunen iruraden, syin ɣer-s, ad yebdu allusen iɣezfanen n usruɣu aɣisan n turṣaḍ d wafrasen iseḍrarmuden i nessemnenni yakan deg yinumyagen iɣisanen n tsuta yezrin (tis III). Allusen-agi, zemren ad kken azal n 200 n yiseggasen i wakken ad lin ad sekkenflen tafmiḍi yulin n tseḍraseblawit n userɣu aɣisan.

Tasellelt,  Alzaz d uẓraf.

Aɣawas umahil, yebḍan ɣef kraḍet n tirniwin, ad yezwir s lebni n umasrurad n tizleɣwa akked teɣsert n Tguri n tibleɣt n ipṛutunen (PTF: Proton Target Facility). Ihi taguri agi tazegrirant, yettusemman MINERVA, tezmer ad tili d tamehlant seg useggas n 2027 akkin. Di tzedwa tamezwarut (2018-2026), ula d tagmi d usnefli (R&D) iwulmen ama i wumasrurad n tizleɣwa n 600 MeV (n tirni tis snat) akked  wunamyag aɣisan (tirni tis kraḍet), ad ttusegwen. Tirniwin tis snat d tis kraḍet, ad ttwusegwent gar 2027 d 2033. S wakka, Taguri MYRRHA tettwazer ad tili tamehlant seg useggas 2033 d asawen. S temwaẓt taddayant, alzaz aɣrud usenfar MYRRHA yettukḍeḍ di tazwara s wazal n 960 n yimelyunen n Yuṛuten (Euros), yughal yennerna ar tiddi n 1,6 imelyaṛen n Yuṛuten (Euros). Anabaḍ abiljiki ibedd-as i usenfar-agi s teẓreft, seg useggas 2010, yerna iɣtes i wakken ad yeẓref azal aɣrud ilaqen i tguri n usenfar-agi ar tiddi n 40%. Ihi yefka-d yakan alzaz n 100 n yimelyunen n Yuṛuten d ibeddi i s iqubel azalen n tezdawt n Tagmi d Usnefli (R&D), Aseɣref d uɣawas umahil (2010-2017). Deg meɣres 2018, iduba ifidiṛalen rnumlan-d (confirment) asefti n 19,5 n yimelyunen n Yuṛuten i useggas n 2018 deg usnefli n MYRRHA akked tarnumli n uttekki-nsen deg usenfar armir (après) n 2019. Ass n, 07 cutembeṛ 2018, anabaḍ abiljiki igzem-itt s teɣtest n usefti n 558 n yimelyunen n Yuṛuten (Euros) deg usenfar MYRRHA, deg 20 n yiseggasen i d-iteddun, ilin ihi azal 27,9 n yimelyunen n Yuṛuten i useggas, s teɣzi n 20 n yiseggasen. Tadrimt-agi, ad tettuseṛṛef i lmend n yimahilen yerzan tirni tamezwarut n usenfar.

Ar tama n ufus usalel i d-iger n uwanak abiljiki, aẓraf n MYRRHA yezmer  diɣ ad d-yili sya ar sdat s teslalit n yiwet n tiggeyt tagraɣlant n yimseftiyen s lmendad n uẓraf n tnelɣast tarufit n weẓraf (BEI). Kra n imakkayen seknen-d yakan asiseɣ nsen am Fṛansa, Japun, Swid, Iwunak yedduklen n Marikan neɣ diɣ Alman.   Tiɣbula (sources) = https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/MYRRHA

https://isolmyrrha.sckcen.be/
Dahmane Mazed